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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 39:2024 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2024;39(2):e2024018-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2024018
Assessment of fishes, sediment and water from some inland rivers across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for microplastics
Victoria Funmilayo Doherty1 , Idowu Ayisat Aneyo2 , Oluwatoyin Tirenioluwa Fatunsin3 , Christian Ebere Enyoh4 , Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya5 , Ikechi Godslove Emeronye1, Oluwatosin Aishat Amolegbe1, Nnamdi Henry Amaeze6 , Felix Emeka Anyiam7 , Aderonke Ajibola Oloidi8, Folashade Ajagbe1, Oluwaseun Popoola8, Moses Ugochukwu8
1Department of Biological Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos Nigeria
4Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Japan
5Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
6School of the Environment, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
7Centre for Health & Development, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
8Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Victoria Funmilayo Doherty ,Email: funmilayo.doherty@yabatech.edu.ng
Received: March 29, 2024;  Accepted: May 21, 2024.
ABSTRACT
In Nigeria, limited research has been conducted on Microplastics (MPs) in inland rivers, necessitating a comprehensive assessment to understand the extent of contamination. This study aimed to assess the abundance, distribution, and composition of MPs in fishes, sediment, and water from inland rivers across Nigeria's six geopolitical zones. Samples were collected from selected rivers in each geopolitical zone (Rivers Yauri, Benue, Argungu, Jamare, Ogun, Ethiope and Orashi). MPs were isolated using a combination of filtration, density separation, and visual identification. MPs abundance, distribution, shapes, colors, and chemical composition were determined using microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study presents the first report of MPs in six in land rivers in Nigeria and found that MPs were present in all the fishes, sediments and river waters studied across all the rivers. The abundance and composition of MPs varied among the different sample types, with fibers being the most abundant shape in both water and fish samples. PET, PP, and PE were the most prevalent types of plastics found in fish samples, while PE/PA/Nylon, PVA, and PVC were predominant in water samples. PA/Nylon, PUR, PVC, and PET were the most common in sediment samples. Source analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) indicated that the presence of MPs was mainly influenced by local anthropogenic activities. However, estimated daily intakes are generally low, indicating that daily consumption of the samples is not likely to be harmful. The widespread presence of MPs in inland rivers across Nigeria highlights the urgent need for effective waste management strategies and environmental conservation efforts to mitigate plastic pollution.
Keywords: Abundance, Environmental contamination, Inland rivers, Microplastics, Nigeria, Pollution
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