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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 39:2024 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2024;39(2):e2024012-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2024012
Benzene: A critical review on measurement methodology, certified reference material, exposure limits with its impact on human health and mitigation strategies
Poonam Kumari1,2, Daya Soni1,2, Shankar G Aggarwal1,2
1CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012, India
2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India
Corresponding Author: Daya Soni ,Email: dsoni@nplindia.org
Received: November 13, 2023;  Accepted: February 26, 2024.
ABSTRACT
Benzene is a carcinogenic pollutant with significant emission sources present in the atmosphere. The need for accurate and precise measurement of benzene in the atmosphere has become increasingly evident due to its toxicity and the adverse health effects associated with exposure to different concentrations. Certified reference material (CRM) is essential to establish the traceability of measurement results. The present review compiles the available national and international measurement methods, certified reference materials (CRMs) for benzene and the limit of benzene in fuel composition (v/v) worldwide. Overall, the review indicates the benzene level in the atmosphere and the resulting impacts on the environment and human health, which frequently exceed the exposure limits of different environment regulatory agencies. An extensive literature review was conducted to gather information on monitoring and analysis methods for benzene, revealing that the most preferred method, i.e. Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector and Mass Spectrometry, is neither cost-effective nor suitable for real-time continuous monitoring. By analysing existing literature and studies, this review will shed light on the understanding of the importance of benzene pollution monitoring in ambient air and its implications for public health. Additionally, it will reflect the mitigation strategies applied by regulators & need for future revisions of air quality guidelines.
Keywords: Benzene, Certified reference materials, Standard measurement methods of benzene, Exposure limits
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