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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 38:2023 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2023;38(2):e2023008-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2023008
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the genotoxicity of titanium dioxide, GST
Ji-Soo Kim1 , Myung-Hwan Jeong1 , Heung-Sik Seo1 , Myeong-Kyu Park1 , Hee Ju Park2 , Seong-Soon Nah3
1Healthcare advanced Chemical Research Institute, Korea Testing and Research Institute (KTR), Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea
2Research Laboratory, Bentech Frontier Co. Ltd., Nam-myeon, Jangseong, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea
3Division of Environment & Health, Korea Testing & Research Institute, Gwacheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Seong-Soon Nah ,Email: nahs@ktr.or.kr
Received: December 1, 2021;  Accepted: April 18, 2023.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used in various applications in a wide range of products including food, cosmetics and photocatalyst. General toxicity studies of titanium dioxide, GST (Green Sludge Titanium) have been investigated in several reports, whereas studies concerning mutagenicity and genotoxicity have not been elucidated. Herein, we investigated the potential mutagenicity and genotoxicity of GST by genetic toxicology testing. The bacterial reverse mutation test was conducted by the pre-incubation method in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9 mixture). The chromosome aberration test was performed using cultured Chinese hamster lung cell line in the absence and presence of S9 mixture. The micronucleus test was performed by using specific pathogen-free male ICR mice. Genotoxicity tests were conducted following the test guidelines of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development with application of Good Laboratory Practice. No statistically significant increases were found in the bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test when tested for induction of genotoxicity in GST. These results suggest that GST did not induce mutagenicity and genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo system.
Keywords: TiO2, genotoxicity, bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosome aberration test, micronucleus test
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