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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 37:2022 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2022;37(4):e2022037-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2022037
Garlic and allopurinol alleviate the apoptotic pathway in rats’ brain following exposure to fipronil insecticide
Amira Abo Bakr1 , Mohamed Ali1 , Khairy Ibrahim2
1Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt
2Mammalian Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, 12618, Egypt
Corresponding Author: Khairy Ibrahim ,Email: drkhairyibrahim@gmail.com
Received: May 16, 2022;  Accepted: November 3, 2022.
ABSTRACT
Fipronil can cause oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Our goal is to evaluate the antiapoptotic impact of garlic or allopurinol against fipronil neurotoxicity. Thirty-six mature male albino rats were separated into control, garlic aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), allopurinol (150 mg/L in their drinking water), fipronil (13.277 mg/kg), garlic+fipronil, and allopurinol+fipronil. Our results revealed that fipronil induced a significant increase in brain malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl levels as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and xanthine oxidase), but glutathione-S-transferase recorded a significant decrease as compared to the control. In addition, fipronil significantly up-regulated the brain pro-apoptotic (Bax) and caspase -3 mRNA gene expression and induced DNA fragmentation but caused down-regulation in anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) mRNA genes expression. Interestingly, co-administration with garlic or allopurinol improved the lipid peroxidation, antioxidant disturbance, and apoptosis induced by fipronil in the brain tissues. In conclusion, garlic or allopurinol reduced fipronil-induced apoptosis and reduced oxidative tissue damage, most likely through enhancing the tissue antioxidant defense system.
Keywords: fipronil, allopurinol, garlic, brain, oxidative stress, apoptosis
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