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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 37:2022 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2022;37(4):e2022028-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2022028
Combinations of cypermethrin and dimethoate alter behavior, hematology and histology of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus
Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu , Florence Amarachineke Elebe, Godwin Nkwuda Nwonumara
Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, PMB 53 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu ,Email: okechukwu.okogwu@ebsu.edu.ng
Received: April 28, 2022;  Accepted: September 26, 2022.
ABSTRACT
Cypermethrin and dimethoate are pesticides frequently used in agriculture to eliminate pests. Contemporaneity of these and other pesticides in commercial preparations and several aquatic ecosystems is well known, though poorly studied. This study aims to evaluate the effect of sublethal concentrations of combinations of cypermethrin and dimethoate on juvenile catfish, Clarias gariepinus, given that the pesticides concomitantly occur in the floodplains were the fish breed. Behavioral, hematological and histopathological changes in juvenile fish exposed to sublethal concentrations were monitored for 96 hours. Pesticide exposed fish exhibited abnormal behaviors such as erratic swimming, frequent air gulping, sudden jerk movement and rapid opercula movement and these were more pronounced in higher concentrations. Significant reductions in erythrocytes (0.83-20.94%), hemoglobin (4.12-29.23%) and PVC (7.14-28.57%) and increase in leucocytes (4.84-9.32%) were observed (p<0.05). Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) reduced significantly in the exposed groups compared to the control. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, distortion of cell architecture, hemorrhage and necrosis were the observed histopathological damages in the heart, brain, gill, liver, kidney and fin of exposed fish. These pathological damages were more severe than previously reported for either chemical. Therefore, the use of these chemicals in agriculture should be regulated, especially near fish breeding sites.
Keywords: pesticide toxicity, fish breeding site, ecological risk, xenobiotics, oxidative stress
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