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Journal of Environmental Toxicology 2009;24(2):137-148.
실내 방향제 사용에 의한 유해 가스상 오염물질 배출 산정 및 노출 평가
조완근, 신승호, 권기동, 이종효
경북대학교 환경공학과
Emission Estimation and Exposure to Hazardous Gaseous Pollutants Associated with Use of Air Fresheners Indoors
Wan-Kuen Jo , Seung-Ho Shin , Gi-Dong Kwon , Jong-Hyo Lee
ABSTRACT
  This study quantitatively investigated the emissions of indoor air pollutants associated with the utilization of air fresheners indoors, and evaluated individual exposure to five specified indoor air pollutants, which were chosen on the basis of selection criteria. An electrically-polished stainless steel chamber (50 L) was employed to achieve this purpose. Test air fresheners were selected through three steps: first, on the basis of market sales; second, on the basis on a preliminary head-space study; and lastly, on the basis of emissions of toxic compounds (benzene, ethyl benzene, limonene, toluene, and xylene). The empirical mathematical model fitted well with the time-series concentrations in the environmental chamber (in most cases, determination coefficient, R²≥0.9), thereby suggesting that the empirical model was suitable for testing emissions. The concentration equilibrium appeared 180 min after the introduction of sample air fresheners into the chamber. Both the chamber concentrations of emission rates or factors varied greatly according to air freshener type. It is noteworthy that although benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, and xylene were emitted from all test air fresheners, their exposure levels were not significant enough to result in any significant health risk. However, certain type of air fresheners were observed to emit significant amount of limonene, which is potentially reactive with ozone to generate secondary pollutants with oxidants such as ozone, hydroxyl radicals, and nitrogen oxides. The exposure levels to limonene associated with the utilization of three air fresheners were estimated to be 13 to 175 times higher than that of other air fresheners. This information can help consumers to select low-pollutant-emitting air fresheners.
Keywords: emission rate; emission factor; environmental chamber; empirical model
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